[i]TITLE Solid Waste Management in Dar es Salaam: Privatizing and Improving Revenue Collection
SUBJECT Coastal City Challenges
The population explosion in the coastal zones of Africa has not been accompanied by the necessary expansion in basic services, including those of waste management. Consequently, many coastal urban areas lack adequate waste collection and disposal facilities. The case is similar for a coastal city of Dar es Salaam. Some residents and some solid waste contractors without good equipment resort to dumping the waste on open spaces, along and across streets, in drains, manholes, and such similar places. Other wastes are discharged into water bodies or onto beaches and river banks. Solid wastes cause mortality to marine biodiversity, have negative aesthetic impacts affecting recreation and tourism, cause hazard for navigation, etc. The threat of solid waste to the marine and coastal environment has been recognised by countries of both Abidjan and Nairobi Conventions that indicated that, dumping of solid waste leads to the degradation of coastal habitats. Amongst strategies and measures proposed by the two conventions are ensuring that solid wastes are not dumped on or around sensitive coastal habitats such as mangroves, installing adequate solid waste disposal facilities and possible recycling.
Despite initiatives by the Tanzanian government to control the problem of solid waste, the problem stays a threat to the coastal population, marine and coastal environment. Both financial and technical interventions are required for provision of appropriate technologies, institutional capacity building and strengthening and human resources development.
The challenge is, with increased urbanisation (current population is estimated at 4.10m people, with solid waste generation amounting to 3100 Tonnes/ Day while the amount being properly collected and disposed off is 1200 Tonnes/ Day (39%). Makoba (2008, p. 14) points out a current population growth rate of 4.9% per annum for the city of Dar es Salaam. This means there is an increased population and undoubtedly increased rate of solid-waste generation and the DCC is bound to come up with effective strategies for managing the solid wastes, if the solutions are to be sustainable.
Moreover, the recently closed dumpsite at Mtoni along the seashore largely impacts the coastal ecosystem in the sense that leachate spills off into the ocean, bioaccumulation through heavy metal impacts into the ocean and its ecosystem particularly fish which people consume and insufficient sunlight that impacts the marine biodiversity. The impacts are many include dirtying the ocean water towards inner-ocean by the solid waste and by leachate dripping-offfrom decomposing waste and scavengers; all these changing the coastal ecosystem.
The goal of this study was to improve solid waste management and reduce pollution in order to protect human health as well as to enhance the quality of the coastal and marine environment in Dar es Salaam. The focus was on privatization and refuse collection charges.
Findings showed that the collection of solid waste in Dar es Salaam has been hampered partly by poor infrastructure and equipment, management arrangements which have not adequately coordinated the interventions of the different actors before and after decentralization of the collection service, inefficient collection and management of the refuse collection charges, designing fault with solid waste collection point, lack of a proper landfill, among others.
Recommendations emphasise on awareness campaigning at all levels of the system, to educate residents on the necessity of cost sharing for services and threats associated with improper disposal of solid waste. Others are promoting political will across all leadership levels, adopting a two level contractors’ structure and increasing the solid waste contracts to 5 years, redesign the primary waste collection points and the Dar es Salaam City Council to put in place strategies for obtaining an engineered landfill site since this is a guarantee for final disposal of solid waste in a secure manner by minimizing the impacts on the environment.
1.1.1 Background and Importance of Solid Waste Management in Dar es Salaam as a Coastal City
The delivery of Solid Waste Management (SWM) services improved since the introduction of the Environmental Planning and Management approach (EPM) during early 1990s in the city of Dar es Salaam. Solid waste collection increased from less than 5% in 1992 to about 40% in 2004 and that, 50% of the total waste generated per day (2,500 tons) was then being managed, while the population was estimated at 3.5 million people (DCC, 2004). However, of late, the amount properly collected and disposed off has slightly decreased, indicating the need to put on more effective strategies for SWM. Data from the Dar es Salaam City Council (DCC) informs that currently, approximately 3,100 tons of solid wastes are generated per day but the quantity collected and properly disposed off is about 39 percent.
Dar es Salaam being a coastal city and a major commercial city of Tanzania attracts people to migrate for livelihood. The habitat migrating into the city, not only comes from upcountry and other cities and towns in Tanzania, but also from neighbouring countries, especially those which are landlocked such as Zambia, Malawi, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and the Eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo, who come for varied livelihood activities in the CBD and around Dar es Salaam.
Further, the recently closed dumpsite located at Mtoni[ii] along the seashore largely impacts the coastal ecosystem in the sense that leachate spills off into the ocean, bioaccumulation through heavy metal impacts into the ocean and its ecosystem particularly fish which people consume, insufficient sunlight that impacts the marine biodiversity. The impacts are many include dirtying the ocean water from that point towards inner-ocean by the solid waste and by leachate dripping-off from decomposing waste, scavengers; all these changing the coastal ecosystem. These impacts will continue to impact the coastal biodiversity for a number of years to come.
The activities include intensive fishing (both legal and illegal) and the infamous mangrove. DCC should join Government efforts of protecting these through playing its role in ensuring safe disposal of SWM at the dumpsite and against illegal dumping into the ocean. Major building and civil construction developments are going on along the coastline and at places few metres into the water, violating the town planning regulations of 1997 that any development should be 60m from the coastline, indicating weaknesses in law enforcement.
Moreover, Dar es Salaam is a coastal city on the tropics country, is located on the Indian Ocean coast of Tanzania, at around latitude 6°50' South and longitude 39°15 East. Temperature in the city ranges between 22°C and 35°C. Humidity is very high, reaching almost 100%. The city is characterized by rainfall of between 1000 and 1400 mm per annum, the wet season is usually between March and May. The average evaporation rate is 2100mm per annum. Additionally, the solid wastes typically have a high-density (398kg/cum) reflecting a high organic content and are both corrosive and abrasive. This density increases during the rainy seasons, with increased moisture content, making the situation even worse. The worsening situation of SWM in Dar es Salaam is exacerbated by the high rate of urbanization coupled with the growth of spontaneous settlements, which are both unserviced and highly inaccessible.
The challenge is on increased urbanisation (current population is estimated at 4.10m people, solid waste generation amounting to 3100 Tonnes/ Day while the amount being properly collected and disposed off is about 1200 Tonnes/ Day (only 39%). Makoba (2008, p. 14) points out a current population growth rate of 4.9% per annum for the city of Dar es Salaam. This means there is an increased population and undoubtedly an increased rate of solid-waste generation and the DCC is bound to come up with effective strategies for managing the solid wastes, if the solutions have to be sustainable.
Figure 1: Quantity of Solid Waste Generated compared to Quantity Properly Disposed-off
Source: DCC, 2008
As DCC strives to ensure that SWM is sustainable in Dar es Salaam, the focal objective of the study was to collect necessary information and data that will enable the DCC to plan and develop better strategies for refuse charge collections as one of the strategies towards improving Solid Waste service delivery in the City.
Before privatisation, DCC was the only authority responsible for provision of public services, including primary waste collection, temporary storage and transportation to disposal sites, streets’ sweeping, manage the disposal sites, and sometimes recycle the waste. To perform these activities efficiently, the DCC was required to have a robust budget for funding SWM activities, adequate personnel and equipment for execution of these activities, etc. City residents, developers, business operators, etc, as waste generators, relied on the DCC as the sole provider of SWM services in return to taxes they paid to the government. While operating in such a situation under the guidance of conventional approaches, the DCC was failing to provide efficient and reliable SWM services to the growing city population (Halla and Majani, 1999b, UCLAS, 2003). The Council was therefore capable of collecting only between 30 and 60 tons (2%-4%) of the then total waste generated per day in the city.
Low income neighbourhoods and locations like Central Business Districts (CBD) were severely affected by flooding due to drain blockages and air pollution resulting from decay and rotting of uncollected heaps of wastes. The unhygienic and health threatening situation in the CBD led to a drop in the number of local business customers, discouraged expected visits by tourists and international businessmen (Halla and Majani, 1999b; UCLAS 2003).
2.2 Solid Waste Management with Privatisation Interventions
SWM was among the nine issues identified at the first city consultation on environment, as crucial and priority issues to be addressed at city level. Through mechanisms of EPM, a working group on solid waste management was formed and adopted the following five-point strategy for city solid waste management:
- Emergency clean up campaign;
- Private sector involvement in solid waste management;
- Community involvement in solid waste management;
- Improved management of waste disposal sites; and
- Encouraging waste recycling and composting.
In order to implement the strategies, partnerships for solid waste management were formed between actors in the public, popular and private sectors. This resulted in different solid waste management practices, relationships between actors, and outputs of solid waste management. Under the partnerships, the public sector is involved through the DCC and its municipalities as lead partners, the private sector participates as a partner through private companies, and the popular sector participates also as a partner through CBOs, NGOs, and other community groups in undertaking several SWM activities. The latter include waste collection, transportation, street sweeping and disposal (recovery, recycling, re-use etc.).
Interviews were held with leaders at the Regional, City, municipal, ward and subward levels. Interviewees at this level were held with the Dar es Salaam Regional Commissioner, Mayors, Municipal Directors, City and Municipal SWM experts from all the city councils; councillors and subward leaders. Others included relevant Ministries of Health, Lands and Human Settlements Development, Industries, and Institutions of Higher Learning. At the grassroots level, interviews were held with households, contractors, scavengers and people who are well informed on several SWM aspects in their settlements.
4.1.1 Willingness and Ability of the DSM Residents to pay for waste collection charges
According to information from the contractors, people are not paying RCCs. This could be caused by, inter alia, having many service-demands such as water, energy, transport, education and health care to pay for. With that long list of charged services, paying for RCCs is not a priority. On the other hand, the inability and lack of willingness among city residents to pay for RCCs leads to failure on the part of waste collection contractors to perform to the required standard. This occurs when RCCs collection are inadequate such that they do not suffice paying for operation costs in terms of labour, fuel, vehicle repair and maintenance. That being the case, waste collection vehicles operate for long periods of time without maintenance, a situation that makes them fail to operate and break down in roads, causing traffic congestion unnecessarily. Impacts of such a malfunctioning solid waste and RCCs collection system include piling up of solid wastes along streets and different city locations, creating a dirty city environment and increasing the vulnerability of city residents to diseases like cholera, dysentery, typhoid, etc, whose spread is associated with dirty environment. Owing to this state of affairs, residents and the Government spend most of their income on medical services. This denies both individuals and the Government opportunities to invest the meagre resources they have for development, undermines individual productivity due to ill health and aggravates poverty among the majority of city residents.
The inadequate SWM services rendered to people in low income areas have always left them to live in dirty environment that increases their vulnerability to diseases as already described before. Contrary to the RCCs collections in low-income areas, contractors operating in high-income areas prefer to collect waste and the RCCs without interference from the city or a responsible municipality. This indicates that contractors in these areas are collecting enough RCCs to pay for SWM operations and make some profit.
o Education and awareness campaigns need to be intensified and promoted among all levels of actors in the SWM system. At lower levels of administration, leaders targeted include those elected by the people themselves, through a representation process, supported by those appointed through Government mechanisms;
o To encourage and use the solid waste contractors and the civil society to be part of the educational team in a campaign to raise the peoples' awareness in SWM and the need to pay for the service. In this case, methods should be devised for establishing levels of RCCs by involving residents in partnership with the city, municipal, ten cells, private sector and the civil society in all the stages.
4.1.2 Level of Awareness on solid waste collection charges
The level of awareness of solid waste collection charges is very low. Peoples' mindsets (as well as some leaders on SWM aspects) are still rigid and tied up with cultural ways of waste handling, thus, they do not see the essence of paying the RCCs. Whereas contractors have been trained on several techniques of waste management both within and outside the country, they have not been able to impart the knowledge they have gained to the people they serve. The concentration of contractors seems to be skewed along the collection of RCCs from the people.
o In addition to traditional ways of educating and raising awareness[iii], residents and local leaders should be sensitised further through the use of traditional dances, music and drama and religious sermons;
o For the leaders, it is recommended to use the following developed framework in raising political will at administration levels lower than the municipality i. e. to ensure a link between administration level, from the city/municipality levels down to the cells and the general community. At the wards level, residents should decide themselves how and at which frequency they have to meet to address the SWM problems. The Local Government Act (1982) supports this method (allow stakeholders participation in planning schemes).
The available SWM infrastructure[iv], [v] are highly inadequate especially in unplanned residential areas. Since the majority of Dar es Salaam residents (60-75%) (Majani 2000, Kyessi 2002, and Samson, 2004) live in unplanned areas, they have very limited access to available solid waste management infrastructure and services. This in turn means that, the existing infrastructures are accessible to only a small proportion of the Dar es Salaam city residents who live in the city centre, commercial areas and in planned residential areas citywide. There are many reasons that reinforce the existence of these inadequacies and the resulting inefficiency in the delivery of solid waste management services. These are:
o Provision of short term solid waste management contracts that do not allow contractors to invest in equipment or borrow money from banks for investing in the same;
o A large part of the city settlements is unplanned. This makes it difficult to provide, say, transfer stations due to inaccessibility;
o The DCC and its respective municipalities do not have sufficient financial resources to put in place and adequately manage SWM infrastructures in the entire Dar es Salaam City; and
o The primary waste collection points are not properly designed and should be redesigned to avoid double handling and improve efficiency.
Other problems include lack of landfill which is very expensive by its very nature and lack of site for it since the city master plan does not include it, a large number of refuse collection trucks passing along the access road to the dumpsite result in vibration, noise, dust, and traffic problems for nearby residents; waste staying for too long in collection points/transfer stations and getting scattered about; waste staying in and around households for too long. Further to these, leaders at levels lower than the municipalities[vi]are not fully involved in the whole system while they are important stakeholders.
Where the issue of infrastructure relates to SWM activities, it is recommended that:
o The municipal authorities should construct collection points;
o The city and municipal authorities should endeavour to improve conditions of roads and footpaths in order to make them passable throughout the year;
o Municipalities should allow their equipment and collection trucks to be available for leasing out in case a private contractor has a breakdown and need to borrow one and could own handcarts/ wheelbarrows and provide repair and maintenance services near community collection points, thereby ensuring that all equipment operate and are kept in good condition.;
o Waste collection contractors be given longer contracts, say a minimum of 5 years (and preferably not more than 10 years). These intervals also go along well with the 5-year political sessions in Tanzania. It is anticipated that in this way, the contractors would invest appropriately and adequately in the SWM activities, unlike in the current situation where they are afraid of taking the risk of investing much as they could lose the contracts. Also, with long contractual periods, they would obtain the confidence of the financial institutions, which issue loans, thus more likely to have access to credit facilities, invest more on suitable equipment, increase their productivity, and possibly re-invest in the SWM; and
o The design of collection points should be modified so that people/primary contractors dispose directly to collection points before secondary contractors pull from collection points to their collection trucks. The current situation is unsuitable as viewed from the study in that collection points are placed at ground level. The primary contractors then dispose the wastes on the ground outside collection points and when the secondary contractor comes he has to collect the wastes from the ground around the collection points and then into the trucks to the dumpsite. This is double handling, a practice which should be avoided.
This is an in reality influential group: where local leaders are cooperative, it becomes easier for waste collection contractors to undertake their activities. Where the contrary exists, it becomes very difficult for contractors to undertake SWM activities to meet standards set in the contract.
There is however, a substantial administrative and political support on SWM at the regional, city and municipal levels. Problems are at the local levels where local leaders have been sidelined in exercising their powers in SWM activities. Despite the fact that contractors operate in the local leaders' administrative areas, the latter have no supervisory role and contractors do not recognize their presence. This has led to poor sensitization and poor coordination among all stakeholders.
Lack of modus operandi: Apart from the city and municipalities, there is no clear system of operationalising waste management at household levels or levels higher than the city and municipalities. That is, there is no clear system to link the (currently detached) top and bottom levels to the operating SWM system at the middle (city and municipalities).
o Currently, there is a National Environmental Policy which is very wide, covering so many issues, and not easy to operationalise specific interventions using this broad law. Within the context of The National Environmental Policy, there is a need to incorporate legislation that regulates specific issues say, SWM policy, waste water policy, etc. In view of the above situation, the central government support is needed;
o It is recommended to enhance the political support and political will of the politicians, ensuring that politicians are part and parcel of the SWM system and then link with the mechanisms of municipalities down to cell leaders;
o The Regional Commissioner and District Commissioner should exercise their duties in their respective areas of jurisdiction in support of policies, legislation and bylaws;
o There should be clear mandates of division of labour among the different levels in the political and administrative hierarchies, in order to avoid duplications and conflicts;
o The city and municipal councils should introduce other forms of punishments to defaulters in SWM process e. g. inability to pay RCC, intentionally polluting the environment, etc. Punishments could be paying fines on the spot, committing the defaulter to a civil prisoner, etc.
o The proposed framework for improving awareness on solid waste management should be adopted in linking the higher (central government) and the lower (ward and subward) in SWM through the operating system at the city and municipal levels.
Information on this aspect is confidential among contractors. However, the study established the same through other techniques that the amount of solid waste collection charges collected by private companies, NGOs, and CBOs ranges between TZS. 925,253,000.00 and TZS. 1,000,253,000.00 per month (about US$881,429 – 952,622). The estimates have been based on refuse collection charges rates from the DCC and its respective municipalities. They include labour costs, overhead costs and maintenance costs (Coffey, 1994).
It is recommended that, more precise charges collected be established for better planning on solid waste management activities. Even improved investments in the sector will be achieved this way.
The modal used is a franchise system where waste collection contractors do collect the RCCs also. The collection of RCCs (public fund) by contractors contradicts the financial management regulations of the local government system i. e. no records/where the money is being accounted for. The current RCCs collection practices have resulted into a situation where residents are unwilling and therefore refuse to pay RCCs as they are not satisfied with the quality of services delivered by waste collectors, and more importantly, they have not been adequately sensitised on the whole issue.
Other problem on the part of contractors: The refusal by residents to pay the RCCs coupled with the Government's failure to establish the exact revenues accruing to the contractors, leads to considerable losses by the Government from revenues earned by contractors. At the same time, the RCCs constitute public money and needs to be accounted for through proper recording in the council's books. The current practice, where contractors appropriate these revenues directly from beneficiaries is tantamount to misuse and abuse of public money.
o The city and municipal administration should appoint a separate contractor to collect the RCCs, and another contractor to collect waste. The city or the municipality will then pay the waste contractor from the RCCs;
o There should be two levels of solid waste contractors: primary contractors will be identified and deployed by agreement between the secondary contractor and ten cell leaders, and preferably be residents in the ward in which they are operating. The primary waste collector will collect waste from sources to selected collection points. The secondary waste collector will then pick the waste from the collection points to the dumpsite. Whereas the primary waste collector will be responsible to the secondary waste collector, the latter, will be responsible to the city council/respective municipality.
The management of SWM funds by the DCC and its respective municipalities with a view to finance and therefore improve SWM operations has been inoperative. When the DCC becomes the custodians of SWM funds, it puts the same in a common pool from which money is spent on priority basis (habitually there are liquidity problems VS commitments).
o The money collected as RCCs should be deposited in a special account operated outside the routine financial systems of the city and municipal administration and if necessary, a committee be set to oversee the expenditure of the funds;
o All expenditure should be approved by the mayors' forum (a committee consisting of all mayors, directors, waste managers and chairmen of the committees responsible for SWM within the city of Dar es Salaam).
Cultural and traditional behaviors of the majority of city residents (different ethnic backgrounds) are evident in the manner that waste is being handled in the city. Rural and cultural solid waste disposal practices such as open dumping, burning, burying, etc are common in the city, (in place of using waste bins and pay RCCs)..
o Conduct more vigorous awareness campaigns with a view to changing the peoples’ mindsets from the cultural practices to appropriate city SWM practices;
o Establish a punitive system for a person caught mishandling wastes and attending short and long calls publicly;
4.1.9 Policies on SWM
The local government Act of 1982 reveals that, to date, there is no policy for SWM at the national level; rather there are scattered pieces of legislation on SWM in different policies and city or municipal bylaws which are, for that matter, not supported by a principal law or policy on SWM. Owing to the state of affairs, the city and municipal authorities in the country handles solid waste management issues according to bylaws they set for themselves.
o The Government should formulate a SWM policy accompanied by the enabling legislation, to regulate the conduct and operations in SWM.
Figure 2: Proposed Framework for Training: Improving Awareness on SWM Aspects at all Levels
4.2 Other Emerging Issues
These are issues not directly involved with RCCs but pertinent for improving SWM. They will enable its success and replicability and expansion such that experts from other cities with a similar situation who would be interested in adopting the SWM system used in the city of Dar es Salaam will be welcome to emulate the system. It is recommended that the proposed RCCs system start with several wards and eventually expand to other wards gradually.
4.2.1 Decision making autonomy
The extent to which a particular urban service or programme involves the policy direction is important in decision making. It includes the requirement to know if the service has a sound rationale for an arm's length relationship with the government. This argument implies that if a function is largely operational as opposed to a policy function, there should be little need for a structure that comes under the direct control of the government. In some respects, decision-making autonomy from the government is desirable for reasons of impartiality.For aspects of the programme that can be directly and adequately be executed by the households or communities, their involvement and empowerment is crucial. However, in cases where the poor households are unable to either contribute labor, ideas or money, it is recommended that the government exercise rational decisions to avoid the general public vandalising the programme. This, the government can do by assigning low level roles within the reach of the people and by engaging them as employees who should participate in the decision process. For SWM in Dar es Salaam this is expected to work out.
Relevant questions that need to be answered here include the following: To what extent does the service or programme rely on local funds and commitments and whether it is wholly dependent or it does have other sources of funds? It is relevant to devise means that will engender the promotion of the SWM service system (the private arrangement in this case) in the long term. Factors to consider among others are how the DCC will be able to support the contractors so that they are in turn able to keep the city clean, the willingness and ability of residents to pay, etc. Funds to make the system financially stable can also be tapped from the PPP, and where business ventures are required to pay more than households as they generate more wastes.
Each waste-collecting contractor should be given a specified area to deal with. The contractor should be accountable for any waste found lying uncollected or scattered in his/her area(s) of operation, whether around homesteads, along streets, etc. This would create a "self-checking mechanism" to contractors, to be able to controls those residents who throw wastes everywhere.
The waste collection contractors must establish their own associations to have more power in whatever missions they wish to undertake; their arguments at the city/municipalities will be dealt with more effectively when presented as an association rather than an individual contractor. In accessing credit facilities, contractors would be likely to benefit as financial institutions issue loans to associations under softer conditions than when it is an individual case.
Contractors, mostly primary waste contractors, are advised to transform waste into valuable commodities. People can sell wastes from their homes. This encourages sorting and recycling at source. It is sort of scaling down the activities that are currently carried out by scavengers at the dumpsite. This is advantageous to the municipalities/contractors as it reduces the cost of transactions.
Contractors are to be paid based on the quantity of waste collected and dumped. It has been observed that, high-income locations generate more waste than low-income neighbourhoods. So, the contractual arrangements should be in such a way that, a waste collection contractor be given areas in low, medium and high-income settlements. This way, the little income obtained by disposing the little amount of wastes collected in low-income areas will be subsidised by more income obtained from high-income areas.
The major waste generators should pay extra costs for environmental cleanliness.
The requirement here is to establish whether or not the shift from the conventional approach to adopting the new SWM service will culminate into reduction or increase in the costs of transaction for the parties involved in the political and economical exchange. Reduction in transaction costs is the overall condition which represents the success of the other criteria recommended above. The recommendations require that the parties possess the perceptions that can direct the type of incentives, which has the maximum pay offs.
4.3 The Way Forward
The findings emphasise the need to continuously improve upon existing strategies for SWM in order to increase efficiency in the delivery of the service. In order for the recommendations to be successfully implemented, the DCC should embark on the following pressing actions:
- Arrange to undertake a study and establish the composition[vii] of solid waste generated in different categories. Furthermore, there should be more classifications[viii] within each category;
- Organise and conduct public awareness campaigns for different stakeholders involved in SWM, focussing on Dangers of waste, need for and benefit of the people to contribute their resources towards environmental cleanliness through payment of refuse collection charges and The need to promote and consolidate public-private partnership for enhanced solid waste service delivery, emphasising contractual relations;
- The former site for solid waste dumping is currently being used to extract gas. There is a need to establish the impact(s) of such activities, if any, to the coastal ecosystem; and
- Design a low-cost landfill for the city and compensate habitat of a proposed suitable site to obtain a site for a landfill.
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[ii] Recently, the city council bought an area for dumping and moved the dumpsite.
[iii] the use of television, radios, posters, press media, workshops, seminars and study tours
[iv] Collection trucks, litter bins, carts, transfer stations, wheelbarrows, inadequate vehicles, poor road conditions to the disposal site and lack of clear waste collection schedules, etc.
[v] For instance, if a contractor is required to make 11 trips to the dumpsite in a day, he/she manages only 4 (in dry season) and only 1(in rainy seasons) due to poor conditions of access roads to and dumping conditions at the dumpsite.
[vi] Monitors, Ten cell, Mtaa and Ward Leaders
[vii] Household waste, commercial, industrial, institutional, informal-sector and market-based wastes, etc.
[viii] Waste must be classified into kitchen, paper, textile, plastic, grass, rubber, metal, glass, stone and other waste.